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Open Access Highly Accessed Original research

Health-care associated infections rates, length of stay, and bacterial resistance in an intensive care unit of Morocco: Findings of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC)

Naoufel Madani1, Victor D Rosenthal2, Tarek Dendane1, Khalid Abidi1, Amine Ali Zeggwagh13 and Redouane Abouqal13*

Author Affiliations

1 Ibn Sina Hospital- Medical ICU, Rabat, Morocco

2 Medical College of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina

3 Laboratory of Biostatistics, Clincial and Epidemiological Research, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Rabat, Morocco

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International Archives of Medicine 2009, 2:29  doi:10.1186/1755-7682-2-29

Published: 7 October 2009

Abstract

Background

Most studies related to healthcare-associated infection (HAI) were conducted in the developed countries. We sought to determine healthcare-associated infection rates, microbiological profile, bacterial resistance, length of stay (LOS), and extra mortality in one ICU of a hospital member of the International Infection Control Consortium (INICC) in Morocco.

Methods

We conducted prospective surveillance from 11/2004 to 4/2008 of HAI and determined monthly rates of central vascular catheter-associated bloodstream infection (CVC-BSI), catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). CDC-NNIS definitions were applied. device-utilization rates were calculated by dividing the total number of device-days by the total number of patient-days. Rates of VAP, CVC-BSI, and CAUTI per 1000 Device-days were calculated by dividing the total number of HAI by the total number of specific Device-days and multiplying the result by 1000.

Results

1,731 patients hospitalized for 11,297 days acquired 251 HAIs, an overall rate of 14.5%, and 22.22 HAIs per 1,000 ICU-days. The central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CVC-BSI) rate found was 15.7 per 1000 catheter-days; the ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rate found was 43.2 per 1,000 ventilator-days; and the catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) rate found was 11.7 per 1,000 catheter-days.

Overall 25.5% of all Staphylococcus aureus HAIs were caused by methicillin-resistant strains, 78.3% of Coagulase-negative-staphylococci were methicillin resistant as well. 75.0% of Klebsiella were resistant to ceftriaxone and 69.5% to ceftazidime. 31.9% of E. Coli were resistant to ceftriaxone and 21.7% to ceftazidime. 68.4% of Enterobacter sp were resistant to ceftriaxone, 55.6% to ceftazidime, and 10% to imipenem; 35.6% of Pseudomonas sp were resistant to ceftazidime and 13.5% to imipenem.

LOS of patients was 5.1 days for those without HAI, 9.0 days for those with CVC-BSI, 10.6 days for those with VAP, and 13.7 days for those with CAUTI.

Extra mortality was 56.7% (RR, 3.28; P =< 0.001) for VAP, 75.1% (RR, 4.02; P = 0.0027) for CVC-BSI, and 18.7% (RR, 1.75; P = 0.0218) for CAUTI.

Conclusion

HAI rates, LOS, mortality, and bacterial resistance were high. Even if data may not reflect accurately the clinical setting of the country, programs including surveillance, infection control, and antibiotic policy are a priority in Morocco.