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Open Access Original research

Prevalence of hypertension and its correlates in Lusaka urban district of Zambia: a population based survey

Fastone M Goma1, Selestine H Nzala2, Olusegun Babaniyi3, Peter Songolo3, Cosmos Zyaambo2, Emmanuel Rudatsikira4, Seter Siziya2* and Adamson S Muula5

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

2 Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

3 World Health Organization Country Office, Lusaka, Zambia

4 School of Community and Environmental Health, Old Dominion University, Virginia, USA

5 Department of Community Health, University of Malawi, College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi

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International Archives of Medicine 2011, 4:34  doi:10.1186/1755-7682-4-34

Published: 5 October 2011



Hypertension is a leading cause for ill-health, premature mortality and disability. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors for hypertension in Lusaka, Zambia.


A cross sectional study was conducted. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess relationships between hypertension and explanatory variables.


A total of 1928 individuals participated in the survey, of which 33.0% were males. About a third of the respondents had attained secondary level education (35.8%), and 20.6% of males and 48.6% of females were overweight or obese. The prevalence for hypertension was 34.8% (38.0% of males and 33.3% of females). In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with hypertension were: age, sex, body mass index, alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle, and fasting blood glucose level.


Health education and structural interventions to promote healthier lifestyles should be encouraged taking into account the observed associations of the modifiable risk factors.

Hypertension; BMI; alcohol consumption; sedentary behaviour; fasting blood glucose level; Lusaka; Zambia