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Open Access Original research

Assessment of gallstone predictor: comparative analysis of ultrasonographic and biochemical parameters

Hafiz Muhammad Aslam1*, Shafaq Saleem1, Muhammad Muzzammil Edhi2, Hiba Arshad Shaikh1, Jehanzeb Daniel khan2, Mehak Hafiz2 and Maria Saleem3

Author Affiliations

1 Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health sciences, Flat #14, 3rd floor, Rafiq Mansion, Cambell road, Off Arambagh, Karachi, Pakistan

2 Liaquat National Medical College, Karachi University, Karachi, Pakistan

3 Karachi Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan

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International Archives of Medicine 2013, 6:17  doi:10.1186/1755-7682-6-17

Published: 24 April 2013



Gallstones represent a significant burden for health care systems worldwide and are one of the most common disorders presenting to emergency room. Ultrasonography, complete blood picture test and liver function tests are procedures of choice in suspected gallstones or biliary diseases. They are the most sensitive, specific, non-invasive and inexpensive tests for the detection of gallstones. Our main objective was to evaluate the relationship of ultrasonographic findings, hemolytic indices and liver function tests with gallstones.


It was a prospective study carried out in Civil Hospital Karachi (DUHS) and Liaquat National Hospital, two largest tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Duration of the study was from July 2011 to October 2012. The study was carried out on diagnosed, pre-operative and symptomatic patients of cholelithiases. Exclusion criteria were patients of gallbladder and pancreatic carcinoma, emergency operations, patients having age <12 years and non-cooperative patients, who refused to give written consent for participation in the study. Total two tests were performed on each patient after diagnosis by ultrasonography. These were complete blood count and liver function tests. All the demographic data, laboratory findings and ultrasonographic features were noted in a pre-structured Performa. Sample size was calculated by using open-epidemiological sample size calculator prevalence (p) = 35%, d = 5%, and confidence interval (CI) 95% = 350. All the data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19.


There were 454 diagnosed and pre-operative cases of gallstones present in the study. There were 120(26.4%) males and 334(73.6%) females, with a mean age of 42.80 ± 12.26 years. Most of the suspects had multiple stones 384 (84.5%) while few had single stones 70(15.4%). Fatty liver was found to be present in 144(31.7%) patients and 92(20.2%) had hepatomegaly. Splenomegaly was present in 16(3.5%) patients. Alkaline phosphatase was elevated in 186(41.0%) patients while SGPT was found to be raised in 160(35.2%). Blood urea nitrogen was found to be elevated in 186(41%) patients and serum creatinine was elevated in 46(10.1%) patients.


In the light of findings it is recommend that all patients should go through the process of ultrasonography and all the biochemical parameters should be analyzed before surgery.

Gallstone; Alkaline phosphatase; Fatty liver